The main function of the immune system is to protect its host against a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and parasites. Cells and molecules of the immune system participate also in tissue healing after neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS).
Stem cells are essential for development as well as for regeneration in various adult tissues. In the brain, stem cells are being investigated, due to their potential for clinical translation in neurodegenerative and neuroimmunological disorders especially MS.
Furthermore, there is an increased recognition that the immune system regulates neural development by modulating neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, and synaptic formation.
Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular basis for the interactions between the immune system and the brain will enhance our ability to harness and manipulate the immune system to improve repair and halt neurodegeneration.
The importance of these interactions is highlighted in the search for the next generation regenerative therapies in MS.
Hence; working knowledge of these interactions is imperative to realize the goal of regeneration using neuroimmunology principles or Regenerative Neuroimmunology.
(modified from J Neuroimmunol. 2019 Jun 15;331:1-3)